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The Definitive History of the Colors of Crayola

Part 20 – Dawn of the Color Naming Contest

 

This is a multi-part series of articles written to tell the tale of the history of color names for Crayola. 

You can visit earlier parts here: Part 1 - In the Beginning there was..., Part 2 - The Original Color Line Up, Part 3 - Other Color Names, Part 4 - The Gold Medal Changeover, Part 5 - Dwindling Down, Part 6 - Changes in the Roaring 20s, Part 7 - Crayola Color Wheel, Part 8 - New Assortments Equals New Color Changes, Part 9 - Crayola's Biggest Assortment Secret, Part 10 - War Time Changes, Part 11 - Enter the No. 48, Part 12 - The 50s, Part 13 - The Revolutionary No. 64, Part 14 - The Consistent Years, Part 15 - Specialty Crayons, Part 16 - Fun Alternative Color Names, Part 17 - Heavy Metal, Part 18 - More So Big, Part 19 - Decade of Experimentation

 

Name the Colors Contest

 

Crayola Big Box (16 new colors) - 96 colors.jpgThough there were no changes in 1991, Crayola wasn’t slowing down their marketing ideas.  The 1990 retirement publicity only wetted their appetite to continue the momentum.  In 1992 they wanted to expand their largest assortment into a much bigger 96 color box so they took the retirement concept in a different direction.  Since they needed to increase their color line, the retiring notion wouldn’t work this time around.  Instead they launched a nationwide “Name the colors” contest and let their consumers pick the names of the colors.  The concept was ingenious and effective.  They got more attention and publicity than they ever would have from doing it themselves.

 

It started with their debut of the Big Box; an assortment that was simply wider than the No. 64 but still had the stadium configuration with the flip back lid.  To get to 96 colors, they used the standard 64 colors from the No. 64 plus the 16 fluorescents they now had thanks to the shake up back in 1990.  The remaining 16 colors were the ones the consumers got to name.  They started the campaign by first putting the crayons in without color names and advertising the contest right on the box.

 

1992 Color Contest Crayons.jpg

All the color contest crayons were placed into a special sleeve designed to promote their new contest with “Tip” their crayon mascot announcing prizes.

 

The crayons themselves were put into specially made white wrappers with each color number clearly identified to help contestants enter their submissions for the contest.  The idea was that you had a color but no name and once you colored with it then you came up with the name they should use for that color.  Once the winners were selected they were going to promote each one by placing their names on a follow up set of crayons before each crayon color went on to their permanent Crayola wrapper.

 

So, the first Crayola No. 96 (Big Box) assortment contained:  apricot, aquamarine, atomic tangerine, bittersweet, black, blizzard blue, blue, blue green, blue violet, brick red, brown, burnt orange, burnt sienna, cadet blue, carnation pink, cerulean, copper, cornflower, dandelion, electric lime, fuchsia, forest green, gold, goldenrod, gray, green, green yellow, hot magenta, indian red, jungle green, laser lemon, lavender, magenta, magic mint, mahogany, maroon, midnight blue, melon, mulberry, Name coming soon! NEW COLOR #1, Name coming soon! NEW COLOR #2, Name coming soon! NEW COLOR #3, Name coming soon! NEW COLOR #4, Name coming soon! NEW COLOR #5, Name coming soon! NEW COLOR #6, Name coming soon! NEW COLOR #7, Name coming soon! NEW COLOR #8, Name coming soon! NEW COLOR #9, Name coming soon! NEW COLOR #10, Name coming soon! NEW COLOR #11, Name coming soon! NEW COLOR #12, Name coming soon! NEW COLOR #13, Name coming soon! NEW COLOR #14, Name coming soon! NEW COLOR #15, Name coming soon! NEW COLOR #16, navy blue, neon carrot, olive green, orchid, orange, outrageous orange, peach, periwinkle, pine green, plum, purple pizzazz, radical red, raw sienna, razzle dazzle rose, red, red orange , red violet, royal purple, salmon, screamin’ green, sea green, sepia, shocking pink, silver, sky blue, spring green, sunglow, tan, teal blue, thistle, turquoise blue, unmellow yellow, violet (purple), violet red, vivid tangerine, white, wild strawberry, wild watermelon, yellow, yellow green, yellow orange

 

Crayola Big Box (16 New diff upper right) - 96 colors.jpgNow the contest ran during 1992 but the winners weren’t announced and shown on the boxes until 1993.  So, in terms of impact to their color line for 1992, they had 16 new unnamed contest crayons by the end of the year.  Between when the contest was over and the time it took to select the winners and put their information on the crayons there was an interim where they removed the contest information from the box but kept the 16 colors just as is.

 

What about the true colors?  Were there any reuses from times of old?  Actually, several of these looked similar to colors already in their color palette but upon closer examination they appear different enough to warrant legitimate true colors so I didn’t go through the effort to document all of the color swatches relative to all other ones ever created.  I’ll leave that for a future comparison knowing that the outcome won’t change the list at all anyway.

 

The contest wasn’t the only thing they were doing with the color line though.  In fact, things were happening all over Crayola.

 

The Canadian Metallic and Gemtone boxes were discontinued.  It wouldn’t be the last we see of some of these but as named colors there were a lot that were gone.  Only Aztec Gold survived as a color this year although Copper Penny used the same true color as the Copper crayon in their Metallic set.

 

Also gone this year was the second set of So Big colors.  These were the assortments with the blue logo and included eight alternative color names including the last holdout for Lemon Yellow which had been retired back in 1990 but still offered up for sale under the Fire Fly Yellow So Big color.  It may very well have just been that they produced so many that even though the color molding process wasn’t going for that color formula anymore they simply had enough So Big inventory that the line continued until they ran out.  Whatever the reason it didn’t change the reality that there were now another eight named colors gone from the active list.

 

For the purposes of our color history, at the end of 1992 we had the following changes:

 

Aged Copper was discontinued.

Amethyst was discontinued.

Aquamarine was discontinued as the true color from the Canadian Gemtone specialty set but the named color was still part of the normal color line up

Bluetonium was discontinued.

Brass was discontinued.

Bronze was discontinued.

Cadmium Red was discontinued.

Cast Iron was discontinued.

Cobalt Blue was discontinued.

Copper was discontinued as the true color from the Canadian Metallic specialty set but the named color was still part of the Silver Swirls set as Copper Penny.

Emerald was discontinued.

Fire Fly Yellow was discontinued and its true color Lemon Yellow had been officially retired back in 1990 so both name and true color were gone.

Flamingo Pink was discontinued but its true color Carnation Pink continued.

Gold was discontinued as the true color from the Canadian Metallic specialty set but the named color was still part of the normal color line up.

Goldfish Gold was discontinued but its true color Apricot continued.

Jasper was discontinued.

Juicy Orange was discontinued but its true color Red Orange continued.

Kryptonite was discontinued.

Lapis Lazuli was discontinued.

Moonstone was discontinued.

Name coming soon! NEW COLOR #1 is a new true color with a temporary non-name used to promote their color naming contest

Name coming soon! NEW COLOR #2 is a new true color with a temporary non-name used to promote their color naming contest

Name coming soon! NEW COLOR #3 is a new true color with a temporary non-name used to promote their color naming contest

Name coming soon! NEW COLOR #4 is a new true color with a temporary non-name used to promote their color naming contest

Name coming soon! NEW COLOR #5 is a new true color with a temporary non-name used to promote their color naming contest

Name coming soon! NEW COLOR #6 is a new true color with a temporary non-name used to promote their color naming contest

Name coming soon! NEW COLOR #7 is a new true color with a temporary non-name used to promote their color naming contest

Name coming soon! NEW COLOR #8 is a new true color with a temporary non-name used to promote their color naming contest

Name coming soon! NEW COLOR #9 is a new true color with a temporary non-name used to promote their color naming contest

Name coming soon! NEW COLOR #10 is a new true color with a temporary non-name used to promote their color naming contest

Name coming soon! NEW COLOR #11 is a new true color with a temporary non-name used to promote their color naming contest

Name coming soon! NEW COLOR #12 is a new true color with a temporary non-name used to promote their color naming contest

Name coming soon! NEW COLOR #13 is a new true color with a temporary non-name used to promote their color naming contest

Name coming soon! NEW COLOR #14 is a new true color with a temporary non-name used to promote their color naming contest

Name coming soon! NEW COLOR #15 is a new true color with a temporary non-name used to promote their color naming contest

Name coming soon! NEW COLOR #16 is a new true color with a temporary non-name used to promote their color naming contest

Onyx was discontinued.

Peacock Blue was discontinued but its true color Sky Blue continued.

Peridot was discontinued.

Pink Pearl was discontinued.

Plum Purple was discontinued but its true color Lavender continued.

Rocket Red was discontinued but its true color Brick Red continued.

Rose Quartz was discontinued.

Ruby was discontinued.

Rust was discontinued.

Sapphire was discontinued.

Sea Serpent Green was a new name but its true color Sea Green continued. 

Silver was discontinued as the true color from the Canadian Metallic specialty set but the named color was still part of the normal color line up.

Smoky Topaz was discontinued.

Steel Blue was discontinued.

Tarnished Gold was discontinued.

Tiger Eye was discontinued.

Titanium was discontinued.

Turquoise was discontinued.

Zircon was discontinued.

 

These changes increased our overall named color count from 252 to 268 and the true color count jumped 195 to 211.  Active named colors in use went down from 168 to 145 and active true colors dropped from 142 to 127.

 

With all the new colors and the new assortment sizes, the progression of the largest size offered was now:

 

1903 – 1910, 30 colors (compliments of the No. 30)

1911 – 1934, 24 colors (compliments of the Rubens-Crayola No. 24)

1935 – 1938, 32 colors (compliments of the No. 332)

1939 – 1944, 52 colors (compliments of the No. 52)

1945 – 1948, 24 colors (compliments of the No. 24,241)

1949 – 1957, 48 colors (compliments of the No. 48)

1958 – 1959, 64 colors (compliments of the No. 64)

1960 – 1991, 72 colors (compliments of the No. 72…which evolved into the 72 Crayon Case)

1992 -           , 96 colors (compliments of the Big Box and 96 Crayon Case)

 

Let’s take a look at the color list at the end of 1992:

 

Named
Color #

True
Color #

 

Color Name

Year

Named

True Color

Year

End

Date


End Reason

All

UC

All

LC

Mix

UC/LC

Other Name Variations on Wrapper


Notes

1

1

Black

1903

1903

 

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

Same color as Kitty Cat Black

1

125

Black

1903

1980

 

 

 

Yes

 

 

Part of the Fabric specialty set

2

2

Blue

1903

1903

1935

Switched true colors

Yes

 

Yes

 

True color renamed to Celestial Blue

2

66

Blue

1903

1935

1949

Switched true colors

Yes

 

Yes

 

 

2

70

Blue

1903

1949

 

 

Yes

Yes

 

 

Same color as Birdie Blue

2

117

Blue

1903

1976

 

 

 

Yes

 

 

Part of the Fabric specialty set

3

3

Brown

1903

1903

 

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

Same color as Van Dyke Brown, Bunny Brown

4

4

Burnt Sienna

1903

1903

 

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

Bt. Sienna, Burnt-Sienna

 

4

118

Burnt Sienna

1903

1976

 

 

 

Yes

 

bt. sienna

Part of the Fabric specialty set

5

5

Burnt Umber

1903

1903

1949

Discontinued

 

 

Yes

 

Not available 1944-1948 due to WWII

6

6

Celestial Blue

1903

1903

1910

Discontinued

 

 

Yes

 

Only found in No. 51 box

6

2

Celestial Blue

1903

1903

1944

Discontinued

 

 

Yes

 

Reused color name for orig. 1903 Blue color; only found in No. 52 box

7

7

Charcoal Gray

1903

1903

1910

Discontinued

 

 

Yes

Charc Gray

 

8

8

Chrome Green, Dark

1903

1903

1910

Used as other name

 

 

Yes

Chr. Green DK, Ch. Green Dk.

Same color as Green, Dark, Dark Green, Pine Green

9

9

Chrome Green, Light

1903

1903

1935

Discontinued

Yes

 

Yes

Chr Green L, CHR. GREEN L, Chr Green Lt.

Same color as Green, Light

10

10

Chrome Green, Medium

1903

1903

1910

Used as other name

 

 

Yes

Chr. Green M

Same color as Green, Medium; Medium Green

11

11

Chrome Yellow, Light

1903

1903

1910

Used as other name

 

 

Yes

 

Same color as Light Yellow

12

12

Chrome Yellow, Medium

1903

1903

1935

Used as other name

 

 

Yes

Chr Yellow Med.

Same color as Yellow, Medium; Medium Yellow; Goldenrod

13

13

Cobalt Blue

1903

1903

1958

Discontinued

Yes

 

Yes

 

Same color as Light Blue; only available in bulk as a named wrapper crayon 1935-1943; Not available 1944-1948 due to WWII

13

126

Cobalt Blue

1903

1987

1992

Discontinued

 

 

Yes

 

Part of the Canadian Metallic specialty set

14

14

Copper

1903

1903

 

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

Unavailable between 1915 and 1958

14

127

Copper

1903

1987

1992

Discontinued

 

 

Yes

 

Part of the Canadian Metallic specialty set, same color as Copper Penny (Silver Swirls set)

15

15

Dark Blue

1903

1903

1917

Used as other name

Yes

 

No

 

Same color as Prussian Blue, Midnight Blue

16

8

Dark Green

1903

1903

1949

Switched true colors

 

 

Yes

 

Same color as Green Dark, Pine Green

16

71

Dark Green

1903

1949

1958

Used as other name

Yes

 

 

 

Same color as Forest Green, Grass Green 

17

16

English Vermillion

1903

1903

1935

Discontinued

 

 

Yes

Eng. Vermillion, Eng. Vermilion

 

18

17

Flesh Tint

1903

1903

1949

Used as other name

 

 

Yes

 

Only available in bulk as a named wrapper crayon starting 1935; Same color as Flesh, Pink Beige, Peach; Not available 1944 due to WWII

19

18

Gold

1903

1903

1953

Switched true colors

 

 

Yes

 

1915-1943 only offered in Bulk; Not available 1944-1952 due to WWII

19

84

Gold

1903

1953

 

 

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

19

128

Gold

1903

1987

1992

Discontinued

 

 

Yes

 

Part of the Canadian Metallic specialty set

20

19

Gold Ochre

1903

1903

1958

Used as other name

Yes

 

Yes

 

Same color as Golden Ochre, Maize

21

19

Golden Ochre

1903

1903

1910

Used as other name

 

 

Yes

 

Same color as Gold Ochre, Maize

22

20

Green

1903

1903

1930

Switched true colors

Yes

 

Yes

 

 

22

61

Green

1903

1930

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

 

Same color as Leap Frog Green

22

119

Green

1903

1976

 

 

 

Yes

 

 

Part of the Fabric specialty set

23

8

Green, Dark

1903

1903

1914

Used as other name

 

 

Yes

 

Same color as Chrome Green, Dark; Dark Green; Pine Green

24

9

Green, Light

1903

1903

1914

Used as other name

 

 

Yes

 

Same color as Chrome Green, Light

25

10

Green, Medium

1903

1903

1914

Used as other name

Yes

 

No

Green, Med.,

Same color as Chrome Green, Medium; Medium Green

26

21

Indian Red

1903

1903

 

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

Ind. Red

 

27

11

Lemon Yellow

1903

1903

1910

Used as other name

 

 

Yes

 

Same color as Light Yellow.  Only found in No. 51 box

27

38

Lemon Yellow

1903

1903

1990

Officially Retired

Yes

Yes

 

 

Color name reused starting 1958, Same color as second Light Yellow, Fire Fly Yellow

28

14

Light Blue

1903

1903

1917

Used as other name

 

 

Yes

 

Same color as Cobalt Blue.   Made exclusively for E.C. Charlton Stores

28

85

Light Blue

1903

1958

1958

Discontinued

Yes

 

 

 

Only available for a small part of 1958

28

120

Light Blue

1903

1976

1980

Discontinued

 

Yes

 

 

Part of the Fabric specialty set

29

11

Light Yellow

1903

1903

1949

Switched true colors

Yes

 

Yes

Yellow Lt.; Lt. Yellow

Same color as Lemon Yellow, second Yellow, Not available 1944-1948 due to WWII;

29

38

Light Yellow

1903

1903

1958

Used as other Name

Yes

 

 

 

Same color as Yellow (true color 38) that it inherited in 1949, second Lemon Yellow, Fire Fly Yellow

30

22

Madder Lake

1903

1903

1935

Discontinued

 

 

Yes

 

 

31

23

Magenta

1903

1903

 

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

Same color as Permanent Magenta; Not available 1944 due to WWII

32

10

Medium Green

1903

1903

1939

Discontinued

 

 

Yes

Med. Green

Same color as Green, Medium; Chrome Green, Medium; 1935-1939 only avail in long crayon size in No. 99

33

12

Medium Yellow

1903

1903

1958

Used as other name

 

 

Yes

Med. Yellow

Same color as Yellow, Medium; Chrome Yellow, Medium, Goldenrod, Golden Rod; Not available 1944-1948 due to WWII

34

24

Olive Green

1903

1903

 

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

 

35

25

Orange

1903

1903

 

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

Same color as Jack “O” Lantern Orange

35

121

Orange

1903

1976

 

 

 

Yes

 

 

Part of the Fabric specialty set

36

26

Permanent Geranium Lake

1903

1903

1910

Discontinued

 

 

Yes

 

 

37

23

Permanent Magenta

1903

1903

1914

Used as other name

 

 

Yes

 

Same color as Magenta

38

27

Pink

1903

1903

 

 

 

 

Yes

 

Name not used from 1917-1990 then used from Mexico; same color as Rose Pink, Flamingo Pink, Carnation Pink

49

15

Prussian Blue

1903

1903

1958

Used as other Name

Yes

 

Yes

Prus. Blue

Same color as Dark Blue, Midnight Blue

40

28

Purple

1903

1903

 

 

 

 

Yes

 

Name not used from 1914-1990 then used from Mexico; Same color as Violet

41

29

Raw Sienna

1903

1903

1910

Discontinued

 

 

Yes

 

 

41

86

Raw Sienna

1903

1958

 

 

Yes

Yes

 

 

Name revived 48 years after discontinuing it but with a new true color

42

30

Raw Umber

1903

1903

1990

Officially Retired

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

Not available 1944-1948 due to WWII

43

31

Red

1903

1903

 

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

Same color as Candy Apple Red

43

122

Red

1903

1976

 

 

 

Yes

 

 

Part of the Fabric specialty set

44

27

Rose Pink

1903

1903

1958

Used as other name

Yes

 

Yes

 

Same color as Pink, Carnation Pink, Flamingo Pink

45

32

Silver

1903

1903

 

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

1915-1943 offered only as bulk; Not available 1944-1948 due to WWII

45

129

Silver

1903

1987

1992

Discontinued

 

 

Yes

 

Part of the Canadian Metallic specialty set

46

33

Ultramarine Blue

1903

1903

1958

Discontinued

Yes

 

Yes

ULT. BLUE; Ult. Blue

Not available 1944-1948 due to WWII; not available 1949-1957

47

3

Van Dyke Brown

1903

1903

1910

Discontinued

 

 

Yes

 

Same color as Brown.  Only found in No. 51 box

48

34

Venetian Red

1903

1903

1949

Discontinued

 

 

Yes

Ven. Red

Only available in bulk as a named wrapper crayon from 1935-1937 Not available 1944-1948 due to WWII

49

35

Venetian Red, Dark

1903

1903

1910

Discontinued

 

 

Yes

 

 

50

36

Venetian Red, Light

1903

1903

1910

Discontinued

 

 

Yes

 

 

51

28

Violet

1903

1903

 

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

Violet (Purple) 

Same color as Purple, Bunch of Grapes Purple; 1949-1957 used another true color but reverted back in 1958

51

72

Violet

1903

1949

 

 

 

Yes

 

 

Name only used in Mexico with the same color as Blue Violet.  This was used as Violet in the USA from 1949 to 1958 before Violet revered back to its original true color.

51

123

Violet

1903

1976

 

 

 

Yes

 

 

Part of the Fabric specialty set

52

37

White

1903

1903

 

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

 

53

38

Yellow

1903

1903

1949

Switched true colors

Yes

 

Yes

 

Same color as Light Yellow (second one)

53

48

Yellow

1903

1926

 

 

Yes

Yes

 

 

Same color as Maximum Yellow, Sunshine Yellow

53

124

Yellow

1903

1976

 

 

 

Yes

 

 

Part of the Fabric specialty set

54

12

Yellow Medium

1903

1903

1914

Used as other name

 

 

Yes

 

Same color as Chrome Yellow, Medium; Medium Yellow

55

9

Light Green

1910

1910

1949

Switched true colors

 

 

Yes

Lt. Green

Same color as Chrome Green, Light; Not available 1944-1948 due to WWII

55

73

Light Green

1910

1949

1958

Used as other name

Yes

 

 

 

Same color as Sea Green

56

39

Maximum Black

1926

1926

1935

Discontinued

 

 

Yes

 

Munsell wrappers used prior to 1935

57

40

Maximum Blue

1926

1926

1949

Discontinued

 

 

Yes

 

Munsell wrappers used prior to 1935; Not available 1944-1948 due to WWII

58

41

Maximum Blue Green

1926

1926

1949

Used as other name

 

 

Yes

Maximum Blue-Green

Munsell wrappers used prior to 1935; Same color as Blue Green; Not available 1944-1948 due to WWII

59

42

Maximum Green

1926

1926

1949

Discontinued

 

 

Yes

 

Munsell wrappers used prior to 1935; Not available 1944-1948 due to WWII

60

43

Maximum Green Yellow

1926

1926

1949

Discontinued

 

 

Yes

Maximum Green-Yellow

Munsell wrappers used prior to 1935; Not available 1944-1948 due to WWII

61

44

Maximum Purple

1926

1926

1949

Discontinued

 

 

Yes

 

Munsell wrappers used prior to 1935; Not available 1944-1948 due to WWII

62

45

Maximum Purple Blue

1926

1926

1949

Discontinued

 

 

Yes

Maximum Purple-Blue

Munsell wrappers used prior to 1935; Not available 1944-1948 due to WWII

63

46

Maximum Red

1926

1926

1949

Discontinued

 

 

Yes

 

Munsell wrappers used prior to 1935; Not available 1944-1948 due to WWII

64

47

Maximum Red Purple

1926

1926

1949

Discontinued

 

 

Yes

Maxmimum Red-Purple

Munsell wrappers used prior to 1935; Not available 1944-1948 due to WWII

65

48

Maximum Yellow

1926

1926

1949

Used as other name

 

 

Yes

 

Munsell wrappers used prior to 1935; Same color as Gamboge Yellow, Yellow (second one); Not available 1944-1948 due to WWII

66

49

Maximum Yellow Red

1926

1926

1949

Used as other name

 

 

Yes

Middle Yellow-Red

Munsell wrappers used prior to 1935; Same color as Yellow Orange; Not available 1944-1948 due to WWII

67

50

Middle Blue

1926

1926

1949

Used as other Name

 

 

Yes

 

Munsell wrappers used prior to 1935; Not available 1944-1948 due to WWII; Same color as Light Turquoise Blue, same color as Aquamarine

68

51

Middle Blue Green

1926

1926

1958

Used as other name

Yes

 

Yes

Middle Blue-Green

Munsell wrappers used prior to 1935; Not available 1944-1948 due to WWII, same color as second Blue Green

69

52

Middle Grey

1926

1926

1949

Used as other name

 

 

Yes

 

Munsell wrappers used prior to 1935; Same color as Neutral Gray, Gray; Not available 1944-1948 due to WWII

70

53

Middle Green

1926

1926

1949

Discontinued

 

 

Yes

 

Munsell wrappers used prior to 1935; Not available 1944-1948 due to WWII

71

54

Middle Green Yellow

1926

1926

1949

Discontinued

 

 

Yes

Middle Green-Yellow

Munsell wrappers used prior to 1935; Not available 1944-1948 due to WWII

72

55

Middle Purple

1926

1926

1949

Discontinued

 

 

Yes

 

Munsell wrappers used prior to 1935; Not available 1944-1948 due to WWII

73

56

Middle Purple Blue

1926

1926

1949

Discontinued

 

 

Yes

Middle Purple-Blue

Munsell wrappers used prior to 1935; Not available 1944-1948 due to WWII

74

57

Middle Red

1926

1926

1949